သူခိုးဓျမ အစိုးရ လုပ္ထားသမ်ွ တပိုင္းတစ ေဖၚေကာင္လုပ္လိုက္ျပီ
ၾကက္ဆူပင္ စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရး စီမံကိန္းအား ခရုိနီၾကီးေတဇ ႏွင္႔ ယခု အမ်ားေခၚေနၾကေသာ ဗကပ ေအာင္ေသာင္းတို႔ က စလိုက္ၾကသည္။ အေၾကာင္းမွာ ၂၀၀၄ ခုႏွစ္ အေမရိကန္ ဒီမိုကရေရစီထြန္းကားေရးဟုဆိုေသာ သမၼတ ဘုရွ္၏ ေခါင္းစဥ္ေအာက္တြင္ စတင္လာေသာေၾကာင္႔ ျဖစ္သည္။ ၂၀၀၁ ခုႏွစ္စျပီး ၀င္လာမစဲတသဲသဲျဖစ္ေနေသာ ရတနာ ႏွင္႔ ရဲတခြန္ ဂစ္ပိုက္လိုင္းမ်ားမွ အၾကီးက်ယ္ရရိွေသာ ဘီလီမ်ားအား စကၤာပူတြင္ရိွေသာ DBS Group Holdings and Oversea-Chinese Banking Corp (OCBC အလံုးအရင္းျဖင္႔ အပ္ႏွံထားခဲ႔ၾကရာမွ ေငြအင္အား အေတာ္ပင္ၾကီးမားလာျပီး စိတ္မခ်မွဳမ်ားျဖစ္လာေသာအခါ လူယံုေတာ္ ေတဇ၏ စကၤာပူအေျခစိုက္ စီးပြားေရး အုပ္စုမွ ေတာင္အေမရိက အာဂ်င္တီးနားတြင္ အေျခစိုက္ေသာ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ အပမ္းေျဖ အေပ်ာ္စီးသေဘာၤကုမၼဏီ ၂ခုအားသြားေရာက္ေတြ႔ဆံုျပီးအစုရွယ္ယာ မ်ား၀ယ္ယူျပီး ၾကီးမားေသာ ရင္းႏွီးျမဳပ္ႏွံမွဳလုပ္ကိုင္ၾကရန္သြားေရာက္ခဲ႔ၾကျပီး ေတာင္အေမရိက တိုက္ႏိုင္ငံ တခ်ိဳ႔သို႔ ေရာက္ရိွခဲ႔ၾကျပီး ၾကက္ဆူပင္ ဇာတ္လမ္းပါလာခဲ႔ၾကသည္။
“Total and Chevron’s Yadana gas project has generated 4.83 billion dollars for the Burmese regime,” one of the reports said, adding that the figures for the period 2000-2008 were the first ever detailed account of the revenues. ဆိုျပီး ေအအက္ခ္ပီကေရးပါတယ္။
အေပ်ာ္စီး သေဘာၤလုပ္ငန္းက သိပ္စိတ္မခ်ရလို႔ဆိုျပီး ေတာင္အေမရိကားက ၾကက္ဆူပင္ကေန ဒီဇယ္ေတြ ေလာင္စာေတြထုတ္ဖို႔ ေလ႔လာလိုက္ခဲ႔ၾကျပီး ဗိုလ္ သန္းေရႊကို သံေတာ္ဦးတင္ၾကပါသသည္။ ဦးေအာင္ေသာင္းက သက္ေတာ္ရွည္ အမတ္ၾကီးလိုလုပ္ျပီး ယာၾတာနဲ႔ပါေထာက္ျပလို႔ ဗိုလ္သန္းေရႊတို႔ ၾကက္ဆူစီမံကိန္းအား လွည္ေနေလွေအာက္ ျမင္ေစာင္းမက်န္ စိုက္ဖို႔ စီမံကိန္းခ်လိုက္ၾကတာ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ သန္း ၆၀၀ ေလာက္ကို တရုတ္က ေန ေခ်းျပီး လုပ္ၾကပါသတဲ႔ အဲဒါကို The Myanmar Time ကခုလိုေရးထားပါတယ္။
In late 2005, thegovernment announceda massivenew initiative to cultivate and harvest oil
from the Jatropha curcas plant [Jetsu]. The government stated their goal was to have
bio-diesel fuel meet all of the country’s energy needs. The plant needs four years to reach maturity, and by then the government expected to be using and exporting Jatropha
oil in vast quantities.
ေနာက္ဆံုးေတာ႔ တတိုင္းျပည္လံုး သြက္သြက္ခါ ခြက္ခြက္လန္ရွံဳးသြားတာကိုလဲဘယ္သူကိုမွ မေျပာေတာ႔ပဲ ကိုယ္႔အမွီးကိုယ္၀ွက္ျပီး ထြက္သြားတဲ႔ ေခြးကေလးတေကာင္နဲ႔ တူသတဲ႔အေၾကာင္း ေအာက္က ေဖၚျပခ်က္မွာျမင္ရပံုက တတိုင္းျပည္လံုး ခေလးလူၾကီး မက်န္ လုပ္အားႏွင္႔ အခ်ိန္ လယ္ယာ ေကာက္ပဲသီးႏွံ အားလံုးဆံုးရံွဳးရျပီး ၀မ္းနည္းပက္လက္ပါပဲ။ ျမန္မာ တိုင္းမ္က ေပၚေပၚတင္ပဲ အဲဒီအေၾကာင္းကို ဖြင္႔ခ်ခဲ႔ပါတာ ဖတ္ၾကည္႔ႏိုင္ပါတယ္။
Agriculture officials in Rakine State reported losing about 55 percent of their crops, while locals in Karen State reported failure rates as high as 75pc. The Ethnic Community Development Forum’s report credited the plague of crop failure to a combination of poor planning and a poor understanding of the Jatropha plant. While Jatropha is able to grow in poor soil, the plants that grow will be weak and more prone to failure. Additionally, the people tasked with planting the seeds were often not farmers or specialists of any kind. They were normal citizens forced into work by the old government. Teachers, students, children, farmers, nurses, civil servants, and prisoners were forced to plant the tree along roadsides, at schools, hospitals, religious compounds, and on farmland formerly used for producing rice. There is no official date on when the Jatropha project ended, but it appears to have folded soon after the disastrous first year of production. The Military government invested a large amount of money, force, land, and time into the project and today there is nothing to show for it. The Myanmar Times contacted several people involved with the project, but most declined to comment. A retired director general from the Department of Energy Planning said “[Jatropha] didn’t work. No one wanted to do it patiently and people didn’t have a passion to make it a success. I think that’s why we failed.”
ဒါနဲ႔ပဲ တရုတ္က အေၾကြး အေမ၇ိကန္ေဒၚလာ သန္း ၆၀၀ ကို ေလ်ာ္ေပးမယ္ေျပာျပီး ျမန္မာျပည္အႏွံ ဒီဇယ္ မသံုးရပဲ သဘာ၀ ေရအားလ်ပ္စစ္ ဆည္ၾကီးေတြ ေဆာက္ဖို႔ ျမဴေခၚေျပာဆိုရာေနာက္ကို ျမန္မာ စစ္အစိုးရ တစံုလံုး ေကာက္ေကာက္ပါ လိုက္သြားၾကပါေတာ႔တယ္။ အခ်ိဳ စီမံကိန္းေတြကေတာ႔ အရင္ထဲကကို ဘယ္သမွမသိေအာင္ လုပ္ထားတာေတြပါရိွပါတယ္။ အခု အဲဒီဆယ္ၾကီးေတြကို အားလံုးျမင္ေအာင္ စာေရးသူ ေဖၚေကာင္ လုပ္ေပးပါရေစ
(၁) Ayeyarwady Maykha/ Malikha Dams ဧရာ၀တီ ေမခ၊ မလိက ဆည္ၾကီး၏ ရွင္းတမ္း အႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ (၃.၆ ဘီလီယံ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
The Myanmar Ministry of Electric Power (MEPE) signed an agreement with China Power Investment Corporation in May 2007 for the implementation of seven large dams along the Ayeyarwady, Maykha and Malikha Rivers in Kachin State. Collectively the dams will have an installed capacity of 17,259 megawatts (MW). Investment is estimated to be US$3.6 billion. However, in September 2011, President Thein Sein announced a suspension of the Myitsone Dam as ‘the will of the people’ due to outstanding environemntal concerns. Construction of the Dam began in 2009 and projected revenue generated by the dam was estimated to range between $558-597million a year. China has said if the Dam is cancelled then Myanmar must pay compensation.
(၂) Tamanthi Dam ထမၼသီ ဆည္ၾကီးတည္ေဆာက္မွဳ အႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ ရွင္းတမ္း
(၃ (၃.၆ ဘီလီယံ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
The government signed an MOU with India’s National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) in 2004 to develop the Tamanthi dam on the Chindwin River in western Sagaing Region. A new agreement was signed in 2008, forming a joint venture to develop Tamanthi as well as Shwesayay dams. The dam will be 80 metres high, with an installed capacity of 1200 MW and an annual production of 6685 Gwh. The estimated cost of the Tamanthi dam is $3 billion. Eighty percent of the electricity will go to India, and the rest will power Monywa mining operations. Construction at the dam site began in 2007, but is subject to delays. A detailed project report (master plan) is being prepared by NHPC.
(၃) Yeywa Dam ရဲရြာ ဆည္တည္ေဆာက္မွဳ အႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ ရွင္းတမ္း
(သန္းေပါင္း ၇၀၀ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
The Myanmar government first announced plans for the Yeywa dam in late 2001. In 2004, MEPE signed an MOU with a consortium of Chinese companies to build the dam on the Myitnge River in Mandalay Division. It is one of the largest roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dams in the world. The dam is 134 metres high with an installed capacity of 790 MW and an annual production of 3550 Gwh. MEPE signed an agreement with a consortium created by China International Trust & Investment Co (CITIC) and Sinohydro Corporation in 2004. The overall cost is estimated at $700m. Construction was completed in 2010.
(၄) Ywathit Dam ရြာသစ္ဆည္ တည္ေဆာက္မွဳ အႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ရွင္းတမ္း
(သန္း ၆၀၀ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
In January 2010, the Chinese state-owned Datang Corporation signed an MOU with the Myanmar government to build three dams in Kayah State, including a 600 MW dam on the mainstream Thanlwin at Ywathit, and two others on its tributaries, the Pawn and Thabet rivers. Ywathit dam will have an installed capacity of 600 MW and investment is estimated to reach $600m.
(၅) Hat gyi Dam ဟတ္ၾကီးဆည္ တည္ေဆာက္မွဳ ရွင္းတမ္း
Myanmar’s Ministry of Electric Power, EGAT, and China’s Sinohydro signed an agreement in 2006 for the joint implementation of the Hatgyi dam on the Thanlwin River in Karen State.
The dam will be 33 metres high, have an installed capacity of 1200 MW and an annual production of 7335 Gwh. The estimated cost of building the Hatgyi dam is $1 billion. Most of the electricity from the dam is intended for sale to Thailand. Thailand is pushing for it to be the first of the dams built on the Thanlwin River. Once built, it will pave the way for the building of the other larger dams. Construction of the Hatgyi dam has begun. Commercial distribution of power was projected to begin in 2013-2014, however, EGAT has announced it will be 2019.
(၆) Upper Thanlwin Dam (Kunlong) အထက္ သံလြင္ ဆည္ (ကြန္လံု) ရွင္းတမ္း
( ၂.၅ ဘီလီယံ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
In April 2007, two Chinese companies, Hanergy Holding Group Company and Gold Water Resources Company Limited, signed an MOU with the Myanmar government for the Upper Thanlwin dam in northern Shan State. Installed capacity will be 2400 MW. The two sides signed the memorandum of agreement in Nay Pyi Taw in February 2010. The project is under implementation.
(ရ) Weigyi Dam ၀ဲၾကီး ဆည္ တည္ေဆာက္မွဳ ရွင္းတမ္း
(၃ ဘီလီယံ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) signed an MOU with Myanmar on December 9, 2005 for the development of Weigyi to provide electricity for Thailand. The dam will be 168 metres high and an installed capacity of between 4540 and 5600 MW. Construction costs are estimated at $3 billion. Most of the electricity from the Weigyi dam is intended for sale to Thailand.
(၈) Tasang Dam တေဆာင္ဆည္ တည္ေဆာက္မွဳ ရွင္းတမ္း
(၆ ဘီလီယံ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
The Tasang dam is the biggest of five proposed dams along the Thanlwin River in Eastern Myanmar. In July 1996 Thailand signed an MOU with the Myanmar government. Tasang dam is set to be 228 metres in height, with an installed capacity of 7110 MW and an annual production of 35,446 Gwh. When built it will be the highest dam in Southeast Asia, taller than China’s Three Gorges dam.
Most of the electricity from the Tasang dam is intended for sale to Thailand. The initial estimated cost of the Tasang dam was $6 billion. However the actual costs are likely to be far higher. Initially signed with Thailand’s MDX Group, China Gezhouba Group Co won a contract for initial dam construction in early 2007. In mid-2008, Sinohydro, China Southern Power Grid Co., and China Three Gorges Project Corporation signed an agreement for the development of the Thanlyin River Basin in Myanmar, including the Tasang dam. Work on the dam has been stalled, and there has been little activity at the dam-site.
(၉) Upper and Lower Paunglaung Dams အထက္ေအာက္ ပေလာင္ဆည္ ရွင္းတမ္း
(သန္း ၇၅၀ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
In March 2005, MEPE, along with financial and construction support from Chinese companies, completed the Lower Paunglaung dam on the Paunglaung River. The dam is 131 metres in height and an installed capacity of 280 MW. The Upper Paunglaung dam is under construction and is expected to be completed in 2012. The dam will be 103 metres high, with installed capacity of 140 MW and an annual production of 454 Gwh (million kilowatt hours yearly). Both dams provide power for Myanmar’s capital, Nay Pyi Taw.
(၁၀) Dapeyin Dam ဒီပယင္း ဆည္တည္ေဆာက္ထားမွဳ ရွင္းတမ္း
(သန္း ၁၀၈ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
State-owned China Datang Company has agreements to build two dams on the Dapein River near the China border, involving state-owned Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise. The dams will have an installed capacity of 408 MW. Total cost is reportedly 108 million Yuan. ninety percent of the electricity will be sold to China. Construction of the Debeyin 1 hydropower station began on December 19, 2007 and was completed and started distributing electricity in February 2011. Work continues on Dam 2.
(၁၁) Dagwin Dam ေဒါင္းဂြင္း ဆည္ တည္ေဆာက္ထားမွဳ ရွင္းတမ္း
(သန္း ၉၀၀ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ)
The Dagwin, or Lower Thanlwin dam will serve as a pumped storage facility for the upriver Weigyi dam. Dagwin is estimated at 56 meters high, with an installed capacity of 792 MW.
Although the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has been involved in planning the Dagwin dam since the early 1980s, in April 2008, three companies from
China signed a strategic cooperation agreement.The cost of building the Dagwin dam is estimated at $900m.
အထက္ပါ ဆည္မ်ားတည္ေဆာက္မွဳ အားလံုးအတြက္ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္အားကိုယ္စားမျပဳေသာ ယခင္စစ္အစိုး၇မွ လက္မွတ္ထိုးေဆာင္ရြက္ထားျပီး ရရိွလာမည္႔ အက်ိဳးျမတ္မ်ားအား ၄င္းတို႔သာ ခံစားစံစာႏိုင္ေအာင္ ခ်ဳပ္ဆိုထားေသာ စာခ်ဳပ္မ်ားကိုပါ ဆက္လက္တင္ျပေပးပါမည္။ ယခု တည္ေဆာက္ထားမွဳမ်ားအတြက္ တ၇ုတ္တခုတည္းႏွင္႔သာ ၉၀ ရာႏံုန္းေက်ာ္ လုပ္ကိုင္ေဆာင္ရြက္ထားျပီး တရုတ္ျပည္မွ ၂၆ ဘီလီယံ အေမရိကန္ ေဒၚလာႏွင္ အႏၵိယ မွ ၇ ဘီလီယံေဒၚလာတို႔ ဆက္လက္ ေခ်းယူထားသည္ကို ဖံုးကြယ္ထားသည္ဟုသိရသည္။
ၾကိဳက္သေလာက္ ရွယ္ႏိုင္ၾကပါတယ္ ၊ အခ်က္လက္ အမွန္မ်ားျဖစ္ပါသည္။